Craig Cunningham


Senior Lecturer in Human Anatomy
Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, Dundee

Senior Lecturer in Human Anatomy

Surprisingly, very little is known about the way in which the internal and external structure of bones changes throughout life. This can mainly be attributed to the lack of relevant skeletal material upon which to carry out such research and the lack of an appropriate means of analysing irreplaceable skeletal collections. However, through the application of modern imaging techniques applied to the unique Scheuer collection of juvenile skeletal remains I have been able to overcome these previous limitations to gain an insight into the structural architecture of the developing skeleton. Recently, this work has focused on the pelvis and has considered the way in which the internal bone structure changes in response to normal developmental milestones such as the attainment and maturity of walking and puberty. Already this research is producing exciting results which have challenged current concepts of bipedality and have resulted in the formulation of revised theories regarding the early developmental progression of the bone. In addition to contributing to advanced anatomical and anthropological theory this research also has a potential clinical and forensic application.

Dr Craig Cunningham is a senior lecturer in human anatomy within CAHID and holds a joint honours BSc in Anatomical and Physiological Sciences and a Doctorate in Anatomy and Forensic Anthropology. 

Dr Cunningham has responsibility for anatomy teaching to year 1-3 medical students and year 1 dental students. In addition, he is heavily involved in the teaching and supervision of undergraduate and postgraduate students across all areas of the Centre.

Dr Cunningham leads the coordination and delivery of international CPD training courses in skeletal development and has responsibility for the curation of the Scheuer collection of juvenile skeletal remains housed within CAHID. His research involves investigating the development of the human skeleton and applying this knowledge to the identification process.



Peer-reviewd papers

  • Drury, A. and Cunningham, C.A. (2018). Determining when a fracture occured: Does the method matter? Analysis of the similarity of three different methods for estimating time since fracture of juvenile long bones. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 53:97-105.
  • Dillon, S., Cunningham C.A., Felts, P. (2015). Quantification of osteon morphology using geometric histomorphometrics. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 61(2):402-408.
  • Brough AL, Morgan B, Robinson C, Black S, Cunningham C.A, Adams C, Rutty GN. (2014). A minimal data set approach to Post-Mortem Computed Tomography reporting for anthropological biological profiling. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 10:504-512.
  • Maclean, S.J., Black, S.M. and Cunningham, C.A. (2014). A macro-radiographic analysis of the development of the human juvenile ischium. Clinical Anatomy. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22391
  • Yusof, N.A., Soames, R.W., Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2013). Growth of the Human Ilium – The Anomalous Sacroiliac Junction. Anatomical Record.  296:1688–1694.
  • Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2013). The vascular collar of the ilium – Three-dimensional evaluation of the dominant nutrient foramen. Clinical Anatomy. 26(4):502-8.
  • Brough AL, Morgan B, Black S, Cunningham C, Rutty GN, Adams C. (2013). Multi-Detector Computed Tomography-A ‘one stop shop’ for Anthropological Examination of Juvenile Remains? A study of Reliability. Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. 2:81.
  • Yusof, N.A., Soames, R.W., Black, S.M., Cunningham, C.A. (2012). Growth of the human ilium: relationship to key developmental milestones. Clinical Anatomy. 25: 543.
  • Cunningham, C.A and Stephen, A. (2010). The appearance of Harris lines at the iliac crest. AXIS. 2:13-21.
  • Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2010). The Neonatal Ilium – Metaphyseal Drivers and Neurovascular Passengers. Anatomical Record. 293(8):1297-1309.
  • Duce, S., Madrigal, L., Schmidt, K., Cunningham, C., Liu, G., Barker, S., Tennant, G., Tickle, T., Chudek, S and Miedzybrodzka, Z. (2010). Micro-magnetic resonance imaging and embryological analysis of wild-type and pma mutant mice with clubfoot. Journal of Anatomy. 216:108-120.
  • Cunningham, C. (2009). Structural Maturity in the Neonatal Ilium. Clinical Anatomy. 22:856
  • Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2009). Iliac Cortical Thickness in the Neonate – The Gradient Effect. Journal of Anatomy. 215:364-370.
  • Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2009). Anticipating Bipedalism: Trabecular Organisation in the Newborn Ilium. Journal of Anatomy. 214:817-829.
  • Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2009). Development of the Fetal Ilium – Challenging Concepts of Bipedality. Journal of Anatomy. 214:91-99.


  • Cunningham, C.A., Scheuer, L. and Black, S.M. (2016). Developmental Juvenile Osteology. 2nd Edition. Elsevier. London.

Book Chapters

  • Schaefer, M, Geske, N. and Cunningham, C.A. (2018). A Decade of Development in Juvenile Ageing. In: New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification.
  • Cunningham, C.A and Black, S.M. (2015). Osteology and Age Estimation. In: Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2E. Payne-James, J and Byard, R eds.
  • Cunningham, C.A. (2014). Anthropology: skeleton; estimating juvenile age. In: Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science. Jamieson. A and Moenssens eds. Wiley, London.
  • Cunningham, C.A. and Black, S.M. (2013). Juvenile Age Assessment. In: C'est  l'histoire d'un squelette.
  • Wood, K. and Cunningham, C.A. (2011). Age Determination in the Juvenile. In: Forensic Anthropology 2000-2010. Taylor and Francis
  • Scottish Government licenced teacher of anatomy
  • Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI)
  • Member of the Anatomical Society
  • External examiner for Royal Anthropological Institute.
  • External examiner for anatomy and forensic anthropology related doctoral theses
  • Peer reviewer - Journal of Anatomy, Anatomical Record, European Journal of Anatomy, PLOS ONE, Science and Justice, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, HOMO, Medicine Science and the Law.